In addition to formal intergovernmental negotiations, countries, cities and regions, businesses and civil society members around the world are taking steps to accelerate climate cooperation efforts to support the Paris Agreement as part of the Global Climate Agenda. The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that deals with the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions from 2020. The agreement aims to address the threat of global climate change by keeping global temperatures well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels this century and to continue efforts to further limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius. [1] The level of NCC[8] set by each country will determine the objectives of that country. However, the « contributions » themselves are not binding under international law because of the lack of specificity, normative nature or language necessary to establish binding standards. [20] In addition, there will be no mechanism to compel a country[7] to set a target in its NDC on a specified date and not for an application if a defined target is not achieved in an NDC. [8] [21] There will be only a « Name and Shame » system [22] or as UN Deputy Secretary General for Climate Change, J. Pésztor, CBS News (US), a « Name and Encouragement » plan. [23] Since the agreement has no consequences if countries do not live up to their commitments, such a consensus is fragile. A cattle of nations withdrawing from the agreement could trigger the withdrawal of other governments and lead to the total collapse of the agreement. [24] Although the enhanced transparency framework is universal, the framework, coupled with the global inventory that takes place every five years, aims to provide « integrated flexibility » to distinguish the capabilities of developed and developing countries. In this context, the Paris Agreement contains provisions to improve the capacity-building framework. [58] The agreement recognizes the different circumstances of some countries and notes, in particular, that the technical review of experts for each country takes into account the specific capacity of that country to report.

[58] The agreement also develops a capacity-building initiative for transparency to help developing countries put in place the necessary institutions and procedures to comply with the transparency framework. [58] Since the Paris Agreement is expected to apply after 2020, the first formal inventory of the agreement will not be carried out until 2023. However, as part of a decision attached to the agreement, the parties decided to restart the five-year cycle with a « facilitation dialogue » on collective progress in 2018 and the presentation of the NDC by 2030 to 2020.