If you measure wealth relative to per capita income, the concept of technology is influence by dollar. The concept of sustainable development was introduced in the 1980s, arguing that development is not necessarily harmful to the environment and that the fight against poverty is also essential for environmental protection (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987). In keeping with this idea of sustainable development, Grossman and Krueger (1991) introduced the concept of ECC into their groundbreaking study of the potential effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Critics of NAFTA have argued that the economic growth that would result from the introduction of free trade would harm Mexico`s environment. Rather, Grossman and Krueger (1991) argued that higher incomes would improve the quality of the environment in Mexico rather than reduce it. To support this argument, they made an empirical analysis, using the GEMS database, of the link between per capita income and pollution in many cities around the world. This analysis showed that concentrations of different pollutants peaked when a country reached roughly the level of Per capita income in Mexico at the time. The second NAFTA annex agreement created the BECC and nadB to promote environmental infrastructure improvements along the border. The Commission recommends, on the basis of technical and environmental criteria, projects dealing with environmental challenges for possible nadB funding. Until March 1997, the NADB – governed and funded equally by Mexico and the United States – had received $337 million in paid-up capital and $1.9 billion in capital or callable funds made available to cover future unpaid debts (NADB 1997, p.
9). The ancillary agreement limited NADB funding to BECC-certified infrastructure projects. Mercedes, Texas, is one of the first projects of the NADB. The project, approved in late 1996 and expected to be completed in 1999, includes an interim loan from the Bank to finance a $4.1 million expansion of water and remediation facilities. Among the beneficiaries of the new public services will be 4,000 inhabitants of the colony (NADB 1998, p. 13). To avoid trade barriers, NAFTA encourages countries to apply relevant international standards in the development of their SPS measures, if necessary. However, each country is allowed to adopt a higher standard than international standards in order to achieve an appropriate level of protection of human, animal or plant health, if the standard is based on scientific principles. NAFTA signatories agreed to work on « equivalent » SPS measures without reducing the desired and appropriate national level of protection. Equivalence recognizes that different methods can be used to achieve the same level of protection. Each country has agreed to accept the SPS measures of other countries as equivalent, provided that the exporter proves that the SPS measures are in line with the level of protection desired by the importer as long as it is based on risk assessment techniques (Looney, 1995). Most of us are used to seeing global stratification as economic inequality.
For example, we can compare China`s average wage to Canada`s average wage. However, social inequalities are as harmful as economic disparities. Prejudice and discrimination – whether it is race, ethnicity, religion or something like that – can create and strengthen the conditions for economic equality, both within nations and between nations. Think of the injustice that has existed for decades within the nation of South Africa. Apartheid, one of the most extreme cases of institutionalized and legal racism, has created a social inequality that has earned it worldwide condemnation. If you look at the inequality between nations, also think of most Western nations` contempt for the Darfur crisis.